Type 2 diabetes, also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body fails to respond to the insulin produced by the pancreas (World Health Organization, 2016). Insulin is a hormone that is responsible in regulating the blood glucose level. As the glucose level exceeds the normal range, it will be stored in the form of glycogen for future use. For most of the cases, insulin resistance occurs before the development of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes (A. Bray, 2009).
In insulin resistance, the cells are no longer reactive towards the insulin produced and more insulin will be needed in order to get more glucose enter the cells. Progressively, the pancreas can no longer compensate the increased need of insulin and eventually lead to the development of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is usually asymptomatic or less marked not as type 1 diabetes does (A. Bray, 2009). Consequently, the complications have already arisen once the patient is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (World Health Organization, 2016).
According to WHO, the global prevalence of diabetes has been escalating from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. Diabetes is one of the leading cause of death in the world. 1.5 millions of death caused by diabetes was reported in 2012 and another 2.2 millions of death is caused by high blood sugar. Unfortunately, majority of the diabetic deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries as they have limited access to technologies and essential medicines to treat including insulin (World Health Organization, 2016).
People who are overweight and physically inactive are highly susceptible to type 2 diabetes.(A. Bray, 2009; World Health Organization, 2016.) In individuals with strong family history of diabetes, individuals with hypertension or dyslipidemia and in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus, the chances of them getting type 2 diabetes is also increased.(World Health Organization, 1999.) However, preponderance of the type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by having a regular physical activity, a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy body weight and also avoiding tobacco use. As a result, in April 2016, WHO has issued the first Global report on diabetes to accentuate the high prevalence of diabetes and calls for action to reduce the impact of diabetes.(World Health Organization, 2016).
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus has been a major issue in New Zealand since 10 years ago The prevalence of diagnosed patients is around 6% of adults which has doubled from 2013 to 2015. Highest rate of type 2 diabetes mellitus has more than 10% in patients aged 65 and keeps increasing along with increasing age. The causing problems identified are overweight, obesity, poor diet, poor education, and inactivity (NZAPS-O, 2016).
Attempts have been done to reduce the current condition by the government and private sectors. The government has promoted education for those diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus through contact time with green prescriptions -- a prescription health care professionals can give out to individuals to help increase their activity levels, include heavily discounted rates to gyms and other activity classes, pools, as well as regular monitoring/follow up. Charities, awareness campaigns, education, also fundraisers for diabetes patients have been going on as private sectors’ attempt to reduce the number of patients (NZAPS-O, 2016).
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- World Health Organization., 2016. Diabetes. [online] Available at: <http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/> [Accessed 22 December 2016].
- A. Bray, G., 2009. Prediabetes & Insulin Resistance | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: <https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/what-is-diabetes/prediabetes-insulin-resistance> [Accessed 22 December 2016].
- World Health Organization., 2016. Global Report on Diabetes. 1st ed. [ebook] Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: <http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/204874/1/WHO_NMH_NVI_16.3_eng.pdf?ua=1> [Accessed 22 December 2016].
- World Health Organization., 2016. 10 facts on diabetes. [online] Available at: <http://www.who.int/features/factfiles/diabetes/en/> [Accessed 22 December 2016].
- World Health Organization., 1999. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. 1st ed. [ebook] Geneva: World Health Organization. Available at: <http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/66040/1/WHO_NCD_NCS_99.2.pdf?ua=1> [Accessed 22 December 2016].